Biological treatment for depression
Biological treatments for depression primarily include pharmacological therapy. At the same time, for the biological treatment of depressive spectrum disorders, the following can be used: electroconvulsive therapy, sleep deprivation, phototherapy, diet therapy, herbal therapy, efferent sorption techniques and other biological methods of influencing the body of a sick person. Among the medications for the treatment of depression, antidepressants are most often used, however, in the process of treating this disease, other drugs are also used : tranquilizers, antipsychotics, vitamins, hormones, antioxidants, lithium salts, medicines that improve the metabolism of brain cells, affect the immune system and other drugs funds.
According to most psychiatrists, psychopharmacological therapy is the leading treatment for depression.
It should be noted that antidepressants can also be effective in treating anxiety, fear, obsessive compulsions, migraines, vegetative crises, and even in the elimination of pain of various origins, since antidepressants usually increase the threshold for pain sensitivity.
Modern antidepressants – drugs that improve the condition of patients with depression, contribute to the reduction of affective, cognitive, motor and somatovegetative manifestations of depression are usually classified according to their chemical structure and mechanism of action.
Based on the chemical structure, a large number of groups of drugs are distinguished: tricyclic antidepressants (amitriptyline, imipramine, clomipramine), atypical tricyclic derivatives (tianeptine), tetracyclic drugs (mianserin, mirtazepine, maprotiline, pirlindol), bicyclic, citintraline, paroxadramone monocyclic (fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, venlafaxine, milnacipran), derivatives of adenosyl – methionine (5 – adenosyl – methionine), derivatives of benzamides (moclobemide), derivatives of carbohydrazine (isocarbohydrazide), derivatives of cyclopropylamine (ni-derivatives of hydrazipramine) … Based on the mechanism of action of antidepressants, the following groups are distinguished: selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (fluoxetine, sertraline, paroxetine, fluvoxamine, citalopram), monoamine oxidase inhibitors (nialamide), reversible inhibitors of monoamine oxidase type A (pyrazidine reverse), selobem mianserin, maprotiline), selective serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (venlafaxine, ixel), noradrenergic and serotonergic antidepressants (mirtazapine), selective serotonin reuptake stimulant (tianeptine), tricyclic (amipraminine) antidepressants At the present time, there are drugs selectively affecting and on the exchange of a precursor of norepinephrine – dopamine (Bupropion).
The pharmacological properties of antidepressants affect the clinical manifestations of depression in different ways . The blockade of the reuptake of norepinephrine by nerve endings leads to a reduction in depressive symptoms (psychomotor retardation, low mood), but at the same time causes a number of side effects (tremor; tachycardia; impaired sexual function in men; weakening of the effect of a number of drugs that lower blood pressure). The blockade of serotonin reuptake leads to a weakening of other manifestations of depression (anhedonia, circadian manifestations of depression, anxiety). Dopamine reuptake blockade increases psychomotor activity, has an antiparkinsonian effect, but at the same time can increase the manifestations of psychosis. Blockade of histamine receptors – enhances the effect of alcohol, barbiturates, antipsychotics, tranquilizers, leads to drowsiness, weight gain and hypotension. The blockade of muscarinic receptors (anticholinergic action) contributes to the occurrence of such side effects as: blurred vision, dry mouth, tachycardia, constipation, urinary retention, memory impairment. The blockade of some adrenoreceptors leads to an increase in the antihypertensive action of adrenergic blockers, orthostatic hypotension, dizziness, reflex tachycardia. Inhibition of monoamine oxidase type A (deamination of serotonin, norepinephrine, dopamine) has a stimulating effect (psychomotor activation, depression relief), while anxiety, insomnia, headache, neurotoxic ) reactions. Inhibition of monoamine oxidase type B (deamination of phenylethylamine, benzylamine and dopamine) causes hemodynamic disorders, impaired liver function, antiparkinsonian and antihypertensive effects.