Depression in traumatic brain injury
Against the background of craniocerebral trauma (TBI), various kinds of mental health disorders are frequent . As a rule, there are three stages of traumatic brain injury in the clinical picture: acute, intermediate and distant. In accordance with the severity of TBI, mental disorders can occur both at the stage of acute trauma and in the long-term period.
More often, mental disorders in TBI refer to long-term consequences, which can have both a short duration and may last for several years. They can represent various forms of asthenia, psychopathic disorders, psychosis, dementia, etc. Depending on the type of disorder in a person who has suffered a traumatic brain injury, the following symptoms may appear:
- fatigue , decreased performance, memory impairment, irritability;
- hysterical reactions, seizures, excitability, aggressiveness;
- a state of dim consciousness, seizures, amnesia;
- hallucinations, disinhibition, euphoria, suspiciousness, mania, irritability.
Depression in craniocerebral trauma is characteristic as a manifestation of affective psychosis, alternating with manic attacks, but it is observed much less often manias, is a symptomatic or secondary disorder. In contrast, from psychogenic depression that occur as a reaction to traumatic events, this type of depression depends on the severity of the injury itself, so in many respects depends on the therapy treatment TBI.
Typically, depressive disorder manifests itself in three ways:
- dysphoria (a condition in which the patient is often in a melancholy mood, apathy, shows aggression and irritability);
- hypochondria (excessive concern and anxiety about one’s health).
A epressiya when TBI flowing from trevozhno- phobic disorders may be combined with the state of dizziness (stunning), amnesia.
In the presence of a mental health disorder in TBI, a psychiatrist can intervene in the course of treatment, both in the acute period of the trauma, and in the distant one. The patient undergoes complex therapy, taking into account his health and possible complications, during which bed rest, balanced nutrition, metabolic drugs and medications are needed to improve blood circulation. In acute depressive disorders, the psychiatrist prescribes a course of antidepressants. In the treatment of depression in traumatic brain injury, antidepressants are guided by the division of depressive disorder into two categories:
- depression with lethargy, apathy;
- anxious depression, which is characterized by suicidal thoughts and intentions, severe anxiety and irritability.
In accordance with the severity of brain injury, rehabilitation can take months or last for years, so the correct rehabilitation measures are very important in order to avoid a large number of negative consequences.