Psychological factor in the development of depression
In patients with depression, due to hereditary factors and the influence of the environment, personality traits with defective mechanisms of psychological defense are formed.
Sigmund Freud postulated that depression is a consequence of anger turned against oneself. Therefore, depression is characterized by self-blame and self-flagellation, which are the repression of anger at other people into the subconscious. Also, people with depression have a formed confidence that their parents do not like them. The predisposition to depression is formed at an early age. So the loss of a mother before the age of 11 is a provoking moment in the development of the disease. Patients during their life have many mental trauma, loss of loved ones. And premorbid personality traits play a role in the genesis of depression.
The predisposition to the disease is characterized by self-doubt, isolation. Depressive patients are self-critical, rely on help and support from loved ones, have a pessimistic view of life, are emotionally expressive, and do not cope well with stress.
Three personality types prone to developing depression:
· Hypothetical personality: prone to anxiety, feelings of insecurity, feelings of inadequacy, self-doubt;
· Melancholic personality: has a desire for pedantry, constancy, increased efficiency and conscientiousness.
· Statotimic personality: characterized by exaggerated conscientiousness, accuracy, diligence.
Often, the main factor shaping depression is the pursuit of excellence, low self-esteem of one’s achievements and successes, and high levels of ambition.
For patients prone to depression, justice is key, and undeserved punishment can trigger a depressive episode.
The search for the meaning of life, the need for support from loved ones, the explanation of problems by external factors, the inability to relax, pride, pride, a tendency to religiosity and mysticism, a painful attitude towards money contribute to the development of depression. Patients with depression very often have alexithymia – difficulty in communicating with other people, inability to express their feelings in words. Difficulties arise when it is necessary to share their problems, get advice. Depressive disorder occurs in a person who does not receive support from people on whom he spent a lot of time and effort and expected reciprocal feelings.
50% of patients with borderline personality disorder have major depression or bipolar disorder.
Thus, psychological factors play a large role in the development of the disease and should be taken into account when treating depression.