Schizophrenia signs and symptoms
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Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by disturbances in the emotional-volitional sphere, pathology of thought processes. Officially included in the international classification of diseases ICD-10 under the marking F-20. It affects people regardless of age, gender and social status. In men, it manifests itself at an earlier age (18-25 years), while in women it first develops in the period from 26 to 45 years.
During periods of exacerbation, a sick person must be under the supervision of a specialist. In this case, he will be provided with assistance to overcome the crisis in the most delicate manner. We provide anonymous support, keep the data of the applied patient and his relatives in secret.
Signs of schizophrenia
Official medicine finds it difficult to determine the exact causes that cause the development of schizophrenia. A long study of the mechanisms of the disease did not reveal specific incentives for the deterioration of mental health. Somatic manifestations of the disease in childhood, adulthood and adolescence have significant differences. Therefore, the final diagnosis is possible only during the onset of puberty.
Among the most likely prerequisites for the development of a mental disorder, there are several main ones.
- genetic predisposition.
The disease can be inherited from a close relative, approximately 10% of children in adolescence are diagnosed with this disease if their mother or father has it.
- Hormonal dysfunction.
Schizophrenia is associated with impaired dopamine production. This hormone is a neurotransmitter that is responsible for the state of the emotional sphere of a person. If there is a pathology of the central nervous system, dopamine is produced in excess. At the physiological level, this causes intense mental overexcitation, in which a person constantly arrives. As a result, delusions, paranoid ideas, obsession, psychosis, or hallucinations occur.
- The impact of viruses on the human body.
There is a category of pathogenic microorganisms that can destroy nerve cells. One of the most well-known pathological agents in science is the herpes virus. With good immunity, it can be in the body for years without harming it. If the patient suffers from various diseases of a chronic or infectious nature, viruses can manifest themselves, causing a manifesto of schizophrenia.
This is an indirect cause of the development of schizophrenia, rather one of the risk factors. It is especially dangerous in case of infection of a pregnant woman: the fetus can develop pathologies, including diseases of the nervous system.
Common causes of schizophrenia include:
- alcohol, drug and other types of addictions;
- pathology of intrauterine development;
- brain injuries that occurred during labor or throughout life;
- strong emotional shock;
- long stay in a state of stress, prolonged depression.
Scientists believe that specific family attitudes are also a trigger for the development of the disease. Parents make the child react to certain situations according to one scenario, while they themselves perform completely different actions. The dual attitude cannot be analyzed by a small child due to his age. Contradictions are growing inside, with which he is left alone. The constant search for answers to their questions causes an intrapersonal conflict, which over time can develop into a mental disorder.
Prerequisites for the development of schizophrenia in childhood
The psyche of a small child is very vulnerable, his condition and mood largely depend on the people around him, the events taking place around him. The psychological perception of reality is laid at an early age. If there is a deviation of the schizoid type, doctors do not undertake to make a definitive diagnosis, they recommend waiting until adolescence.
The propensity to the disease in preschool age is manifested specifically:
- the child is considered strange – he inadequately reacts to events;
- often experiences unreasonable fear;
- becomes overly irritable and impulsive;
- when observing him, increased nervous excitability is manifested;
- bouts of crying that occur for no particular reason can last for a long time;
- the child often goes from euphoria to apathy;
- he talks about his visions, hallucinations;
- a teenager is disturbed by obsessive thoughts, he fixates on the same idea.
If there are several such negative manifestations, there is reason to think about visiting a psychiatrist. Deviations can be accompanied by personality degradation, which will manifest itself completely in adolescence. This may be dissatisfaction with appearance, delusions and hallucinations, motor dysfunction, suicidal thoughts and attempts to die.
The signs of the disease are clearly marked by doctors. All symptoms of schizophrenia are divided into 4 large groups:
Positive signs of schizophrenia were not previously inherent in the patient, they are not specific traits of his character, they arise exclusively against the background of the disease. The term “positive” implies the emergence of new qualities, in which case it is not used as “good”. This group of symptoms includes:
- inadequate reactions to people and events;
- constantly excited state;
- delusions, illusions, hallucinations.
Inadequate behavior is expressed in the form of stupid actions, excessive nervousness, inconsistency in manners and appearance of a certain situation. This category includes two types of mental disorders – depersonalization and derealization . The first is a violation of internal boundaries: the person’s personality seems to be split into two parts. One of them performs certain actions, the second observes them and cannot intervene. The body and thoughts seem alien to a person, as if someone else has settled inside him. This “tenant” dictates his own rules, indicates the need to perform certain actions.
Derealization is characterized by increased perception of various factors (sounds, smells, shades). It seems to a person that everything that happens has no connection with reality, it is a kind of theater in which each “actor” plays a role.
One of the options for inappropriate behavior in schizophrenia is catatonia. A person falls into a stupor, takes an awkward pose and stays in it for a very long time. Any attempts from the outside to bring him out of this state are doomed to failure. Schizophrenics have great muscular strength, they are able to successfully resist.
Also, the types of inappropriate behavior include a violation of hebephrenia. Regardless of where the patient is, he behaves stupidly, constantly laughing, fooling around, jumping up and down, making faces. Talking about the inappropriateness of such behavior leads nowhere. Attempts to appeal to conscience end in failure.
Hallucinations are a complex of sensations of a specific nature that do not actually exist. They are inextricably linked with the human senses, divided into taste, visual, olfactory, tactile and auditory. In schizophrenia, the patient most often suffers from auditory hallucinations. In the surrounding space or in his own head, he hears voices leading a coherent conversation with him. They can give commands to which the schizophrenic often obeys, calm or make laugh. Hallucinations lead to the development of delusional ideas. The schizophrenic is sure that everything that happens to him is real, and those close to him are deceiving him for an unknown purpose.
The category of negative symptoms in schizophrenia characterizes signs that have disappeared or changed their functions. If before the onset of the disease the character of a person had certain traits and qualities, after the manifestation of the disease they either disappear completely or become less pronounced.
This category includes:
- loss of vital energy, motivation for actions;
- lack of initiative in domestic and professional matters;
- passivity in the physical plane;
- decreased thinking functions, impaired cognitive processes;
- narrowing the range of interests;
- emotional poverty, apathy, indifference to what is happening;
- movements become slow and sluggish;
- self-control is weak or absent;
- the patient cannot build an algorithm for sequential actions;
- he is incapable of enjoying external stimuli.
Lack of motivation for everything leads to personality degradation (similar symptoms are observed in the treatment of Pick’s disease). Schizophrenics strive for social isolation, they often do not leave the house, they neglect the rules of personal hygiene. Their appearance becomes sloppy, which repels others. You can understand that a person has schizophrenia by the following features of his speech:
- he constantly jumps from one topic to another, interrupts himself, builds incoherent speech;
- uses new, often absurd words that he himself invents;
- repeatedly repeats individual phrases and sentences after others;
- speech becomes fast and incoherent;
- begins to speak in rhyme;
- answers to questions are monosyllabic, incomplete or slurred;
- in the absence of thoughts, he suddenly withdraws into himself, stopping the conversation.
Often in schizophrenics, a violation of thinking is expressed in reasoning. A person constantly talks about topics invented by him, even if they try to involve him in another conversation or interrupt him, he does not react to this.
Disorganized symptoms represent difficulty in orienting in space. These are chaotic behavior, problems with thinking and impaired speech functions. Affective symptoms are expressed in a permanently lowered mood. Schizophrenics are often depressed and try to get out of this state on their own by starting to use alcohol or psychotropic substances. They are visited by suicidal thoughts, which at one moment can be realized. The patient often blames himself for everything, even if he has no direct relation to what is happening.
Schizophrenia symptoms and signs in women
At an early stage of the development of the disease, the first symptoms in women are manifested in the form of hallucinations and delusions. The emotional background becomes unstable, there is depression and apathy towards everything that previously aroused interest. These signs may remain the only ones and exist for several years until the onset of productive symptoms. Patients and their relatives do not realize that the disease has already taken root.
Patients become unfriendly, tend to social isolation, avoid contact, often get annoyed over trifles. The woman’s manner of speaking changes dramatically. She cannot explain to others what she wants to convey to them or is limited to short phrases, she chooses the right words for a long time.
It seems to women with this diagnosis that they are being hypnotized, they can hear the voices of aliens, often see pictures and even entire films in their heads. Patients complain of a feeling of shooting, burning or drilling in the brain.
The feeling of attachment to relatives and children is lost, the patient treats them as if they were strangers. Women are more likely than men to be interested in magic and otherworldly forces. Therefore, they perceive their state as the birth of magical abilities or influence on themselves by magicians and sorcerers.
Schizophrenia signs and symptoms in men
Symptoms of the disease in males are very similar to those in women. In the first stage, they experience discomfort due to the fact that they are visited by hallucinations and delusional ideas arise. There is a degradation of personality and loss of human appearance in the truest sense of the word.
A person becomes sloppy, stops washing and brushing his teeth, eventually decides not to leave the house. The man has pronounced aggression and an increased level of anxiety. Sometimes this state can turn into panic, which is a concomitant symptom of depersonalization. The patient has a thought disorder, various motor disorders.
Stages of schizophrenia
Psychiatrists distinguish 3 stages of the development of the disease.
The initial stage, which is characterized by a constant feeling of anxiety. Most often, the patient does not understand where it came from. The occurrence of obsessive thoughts leads to the fact that the patient constantly checks whether he turned off the gas, closed the apartment, turned off the iron. With the help of timely drug therapy, unpleasant symptoms are eliminated.
The middle stage of the development of the disease, which is accompanied by changes in the personality and consciousness of the patient. The real or fictional world is intertwined, the schizophrenic cannot understand where is the truth and where is fiction. The feeling of fear disappears over time, the patient perceives the current state of affairs as a given. This stage requires immediate treatment in a hospital.
This is a severe stage in the development of schizophrenia, in which profound changes in the emotional background of a person are observed. The patient does not react in any way to the surrounding events and people, he loses feelings of joy, sadness, shame and pleasure. The condition resembles dementia or dementia in old age. Logical thinking is completely absent, speech and motor functions are impaired. This stage is difficult to treat; to maintain the patient’s life, medications are used to restore the neural connections of the brain.
The diagnosis of sluggish schizophrenia is considered mild, it is a mild form of the disease. It does not involve critical changes in the character of a person and his brain. Clinical symptoms increase very slowly, the patient has a complex of signs of neurotic disorders. This form of the disease is characterized by obsessive- compulsive disorder, various phobias, hypochondria, paranoia.
- scarcity of interests;
- difficulties in contact with others;
- the occurrence of hysterical seizures against the background of increased anxiety;
Patients often have causeless pessimism, which has no prerequisites in real life. Many patients of a psychotherapist talk about bouts of sentimentality that they did not have before, self-doubt, various fears. Often this condition is attributed to nervous tension and stress, in fact, being a hidden symptom of a mental disorder.
This type of schizophrenia is characterized by a distortion of thinking and perception. A striking feature, which is the basis for diagnosis, is the presence of delusions and hallucinations. The behavior of patients changes dramatically, they become suspicious, suspicious, aggressive and constantly in a frightened state.
They are practically “turned off” from their usual life, they stop taking care of themselves and perform any household duties. Lack of care from loved ones exacerbates the situation. Treatment is long, the prognosis for recovery in this form of schizophrenia is unpredictable. Patients with paranoid schizophrenia believe that they can transmit thoughts at a distance and hear voices. They believe that someone is trying to control them and makes them do different things, fills their minds with evil, pessimism and fear.
Symptoms of paranoid schizophrenia:
- fictitious ones join real memories, a person receives a distorted picture of the past;
- appear beyond the idea;
- habitual behavior changes, it is far from the concept of adequacy;
- often there are nervous breakdowns and tantrums;
- patients are sure that they have a special mission, highly developed insight, intuition;
- often in a state of anger, bitterness and gloom;
- meaningless thoughts begin the moment others ask them simple questions.
There are two forms of paranoid schizophrenia.
Delusional disorder occurs chaotically and after a while disappears without a trace. Patients consider this state of insight, which helps to see the true purpose. This form of the disorder is easier to treat, the symptoms are completely controlled by medications. You can take a full course of therapy at the Clinic of Dr. Isaev.
Fictional ideas of a fantastic nature arise spontaneously, the patient is often under their influence. This is a negative attitude towards loved ones, suspicion, persecution mania, jealousy. This form acquires a continuous course, periods of remission are usually absent, which complicates the treatment process.
Where is schizophrenia treated in Moscow
At the stage of exacerbation, the patient must be in the hospital. In this state, he cannot control himself and his actions, requires round-the-clock care, the use of medications.
The Clinic of Dr. Isaev treats schizophrenia with safe licensed drugs. The disease goes into remission, he can continue to live normally and take care of himself on his own.
How to treat schizophrenia at home
Mental illness is treated only with the participation of a specialist. It is impossible to get rid of schizophrenia with the help of self-prescribed drugs. This mental disorder is characterized by the disappearance of symptoms during a long period of remission. The patient must be constantly under the supervision of a physician, as in the treatment of insanity, dementia, psychosis.
It is impossible to independently establish a diagnosis and prescribe treatment. In the medical center, patients with suspected schizophrenia are examined by a psychiatrist. Thinking tests allow you to understand if the patient has a mental disorder. Additionally, an MRI is performed to determine the cause of the development of the disease.
Treatment of schizophrenia in Moscow reviews
It is very important for patients and their relatives that the treatment is professional. Competent doctors work in our clinic, the conditions of stay in the hospital provide patients with comfort and safety. Patient testimonials can be found on this page.