Types and types of depression
Depression is a depressed mood, a depressed state in which everything around is presented to the patient in a gloomy light. According to A. Weber , the main core of depression is the reduction in the duration of sleep , decreased appetite, guilt, poverty and inhibition of impulses.
According to R. Lemke , H. Rennert , the mood of a depressed person is perceived as deep depression, torment or affective inhibition. There is a lack of courage, depression, sadness with a feeling of concern, pessimistic state up to melancholy with fatigue from life and the danger of suicide . In depressive states, attention is often fixed on bodily disturbances. A decrease in vegetative functions is characteristic. The rhythms of a patient with depression also change in other respects (body temperature curve, fluctuations in hormone levels, etc.)
Along with the typical signs of depression in men, one can note low resistance to stress , aggressive behavior, uncertainty in decision-making, passion for extreme sports, and alcohol abuse .
According to clinical characteristics, depressions of two groups are distinguished: relatively simple, characterized by disorders that arise in depressive syndrome, and complex, in which depression is combined with symptoms of other psychopathological syndromes.
Depression of the 1st group
- adynamic – characterized by the manifestation of weakness, indifference to the environment and the absence of any motives and desires. Patients complain of lack of mood, sleepiness during the day and insomnia at night.
- agitated – characterized by motor excitement and anxiety; patients rush about, condemn themselves for wrong actions, demand punishment;
- anesthetic – with psychotic anesthesia, an adequate emotional reaction to impressions, external stimuli disappears . Patients are worried about emptiness in the chest and head, they say that they are not able to feel feelings for loved ones;
- depression with delusions of self-accusation – patients reproach themselves for any actions, crimes, demand punishment;
- dysphoric (grumbling, gloomy) – irritability, melancholy and displeasure are manifested , which spreads to everything around. There are frequent outbursts of rage, aggression against others;
- ironic (smiling) – despite the painful state inside himself, a smile appears on the patient’s face, he is inclined to ironic his state, helplessness;
- tearful – characterized by the manifestation of weakness, asthenia ;
- stuporous — motor inhibition is observed , leading to complete immobility and mutism . Deep depressive affect is combined with lethargy and refusal to eat. Constipation, dry mucous membranes, skin are characteristic;
- anxious – manifested by the emergence of an anxiety state, depression arises with an uncertain danger and manifests itself in anticipation of unfavorable events; Loss of habitual interests, depression, daily mood swings are characteristic. Fears of the dark, of strangers, fear of loneliness, animals, crowds are characteristic;
- Dreary (melancholic) – a feeling of melancholy, the appearance of tears and atrial melancholy is characteristic .
Depression of the 2nd group
- asthenic – characterized by asthenic disorders, accompanied by increased fatigue, weakness and irritation. Patients become painfully impressionable, capricious; uncertainty, indecision, suspiciousness are growing; working capacity decreases
- hysterical – brightness, intensity of affect, rich expression with demonstrative tearfulness, sobs, lively facial expressions. Hysterical depression is characterized by a contrast between a shallow level of proper affective disorders and an exaggerated hysterical characteristic of one’s own depression.
- depression with manifestations of obsession – a mildly low mood,
- feeling of sadness, tearfulness, emotional lability, asthenia, anxiety and low mood
- hypochondriacal – a state of depression is combined with overvalued or delusional hypochondriacal ideas; real sensations are caused by vegetative disorders; women with asthenic physique are more likely to suffer from hypochondriacal depression
- psychasthenic – characterized by low mood and lethargy, as well as indecision and self-doubt .
- depression with depersonalization and derealization – feelings are lost (mental anesthesia), feelings of insensibility, unreality appear, sleep disorders occur.
There are other clinical variants of depression, but they are less common.