Types of depression

In the modern world, 110 million people suffer from depression. The number of patients is predicted to increase in the next 10 years, and the trend continues to refer patients to general practitioners.

Depression is a disease characterized by longing, despair, depression, and lethargy. According to ICD-10, depression is classified as a mood disorder (affective disorder). There are several types of depression:

· Depression within the framework of bipolar disorder (BAD);       

• depressive episode (mild, moderate, severe);       

· Chronic affective mood disorders (cyclothymia, dysthymia);       

· Recurrent depressive disorder;       

· Depressive reactions to stress;       

· Depression of organic genesis;       

· Depression of childhood and adolescence;       

Depression is characterized by decreased mood, impaired cognitive functions, somatic manifestations, autonomic reactions, and decreased activity.

According to the 10th edition of the international classification of diseases, two main symptoms of three are needed to diagnose depression:

· Decreased energy and increased fatigue;             

• inability to get pleasure and loss of interests;             

· Decreased mood throughout the day.             

Additional syndromes of depression are:

· Decrease in concentration of attention;             

• sleep disturbance;             

• suicidal thoughts;             

· Decreased appetite;             

· Ideas of guilt and self-deprecation.             

The duration of these syndromes is observed for at least two weeks.

According to the structure, depressions are divided into:

· Asthenia;             

• melancholy;             

· Disturbing;             

· Dysphoric;             

· Apathetic;             

· Vegetative;             

· Somatized ;             

· Adynamic;             

· Agitated;             

· Stuporous ;             

· Ironic;             

· Delusional (nihilistic nonsense, nonsense accusations, condemnation delirium, delusions huge, delusions of persecution);             

· Depression with fixation on one’s health.             

The most difficult to diagnose is somatized depression. With them, in addition to affective disorders, there are:

· Pain in the head and heart;             

• neuralgia;             

· Decreased libido;             

· Amenorrhea;             

· Drowsiness;             

· Insomnia;             

· Asthenia;             

· Loss of appetite.             

Diagnosis of somatized depression is based on the discrepancy between somatovegetative disorders and the nature of the somatic disease.

Some somatic diseases are accompanied by mood disorders:

· Arterial hypertension – anxiety-depressive reactions;             

· Gastrointestinal diseases – hypochondriacal depression;             

· Ulcerative colitis – asthenia and depression;             

· Liver disease – dysphoria;             

· Cardiovascular diseases – phobias and neurotic depression;             

· Pre-stroke state – anxious depression;             

· Pulmonary tuberculosis – euphoria.             

Major depression can develop with organic brain damage. Depression can be accompanied by chronic back pain, migraines, tension headaches.

Depression very often occurs in middle and old age. More common in women than in men.

 Somatized depression can be disguised as a physical illness, which can result in multiple examinations, consultations, and even surgical treatment.

For effective treatment of depression, it is necessary to correctly differentiate them and distinguish somatic pathology from somatized depression.

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